This Day in History (06-06-1397)
Today is Tuesday; 6th of the Iranian month of Shahrivar 1397 solar hijri; corresponding to 16th of the Islamic month of Zil-Hijjah 1439 lunar hijri; and August 28, 2018, of the Christian Gregorian Calendar.
1588 solar years ago, on this day in 430 AD, Christian bishop, Augustine died in Hippo – present day Annaba in Algeria. His writings included "The Confessions." He was the proponent of the theory of the so-called "just war", saying a nation’s leaders must consider among other things, anticipated loss of civilian life and whether all peaceful options have been exhausted before war starts. Intellectuals have criticized his views, pointing out that his dogmatic invective laid the foundations for centuries of intellectual tyranny by the Catholic Church.
1386 solar years ago, on this day in 632 AD – as per the Gregorian Calendar –Hazrat Fatema az-Zahra (peace upon her), the venerable daughter of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA), was tragically martyred, leaving behind in a state of mourning her bereaved husband, Imam Ali (AS), and four little children – sons, Imam Hasan (AS) and Imam Husain (AS); and daughters, Hazrat Zainab (SA) and Hazrat Omm Kolthoum (SA). She was the daughter of the Mother of Believers (Omm al-Momineen) Hazrat Khadijah (SA), and is regarded as the noblest ever lady of all times, superior in merits to the Virgin Mary (SA) – mother of Prophet Jesus (AS). God Almighty has vouchsafed her spotless purity in the holy Qur’an. She remains a model-par-excellence for all virtuous women, and her progeny, the Saadaat (plural of Seyyed), has today spread around the world and is held in esteem by all Muslims. Her tragic martyrdom was the result of the hurling upon her of the burning door of her house by a roguish group of her father’s companions, who had seized her patrimony of the orchard of Fadak, and had usurped the political rule of the Islamic state from her husband, Imam Ali (AS), the Prophet’s divinely-decreed heir. According to the Islamic calendar she attained martyrdom either on the 13th of Jamadi al-Awwal or the 3rd of Jamadi al-Akher, 11 AH.
968 lunar years ago, on this day in 471 AH, the Spanish Muslim astronomer and mathematician, Abu Abdullah Moḥammad ibn Mu'az al-Jayyani, passed away at the age of over 90. Born in Cordova, after completing his studies in Islamic Spain, he went for higher studies to Cairo and stayed in Egypt for four years, before returning to his homeland, where besides his scientific activities, he served as Qazi (judge). He wrote important commentaries on the Greek scientist, Euclid's Elements. He also wrote the first known treatise on spherical trigonometry as a discipline independent from astronomy. His work on spherical trigonometry contains formulae for right-handed triangles, the general law of sines, and the solution of a spherical triangle by means of the polar triangle. This treatise had a strong influence on European mathematics, while his definition of ratios as numbers and method of solving a spherical triangle when all sides are unknown, influenced scholars of the Renaissance period.
829 solar years ago, on this day in 1189 AD, during the third Crusade, European invaders began the siege of the Palestinian city of Acre under Guy of Lusignan. It lasted until July 12, 1191, and was the deadliest event for the Christian occupiers during the entire period of the Crusades.
497 solar years ago,on this day in 1521 AD, Ottoman Turks captured Belgrade, the capital of Serbia, during the reign of Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent. The earlier attempt to take Belgrade by the Ottomans in 1456 under Mohammad al-Fateh had proved inconclusive. The Turks transformed Belgrade into an Islamic city, complete with baths, public fountains, libraries, bazaars, and mosques. The city was occupied by the Serbs in 1807 and became capital of Serbia in 1841. The Christians have erased much of the Islamic features of Belgrade.
476 solar years ago, on this day in 1542 AD, during the 19-year long Turkish-Portuguese War that lasted from 1538-to-1557, the Ottomans emerged victorious in the Battle of Wofla. The Portuguese were scattered, and their leader Christovão da Gama was captured and later executed.
269 solar years ago, on this day in 1749 AD, prominent German poet and writer, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, was born. He became familiar with music, painting, and different languages, while pursuing studies in law. His deep interest in Persian and Arabic literature, especially the poems of the renowned Iranian poet, Hafez, made him study Islam and the holy Qur'an. He noted: “The miracle of Islam par excellence is the Qur’an, through which a constant and unbroken tradition transmits to us news of an absolute certainty. This is a book which cannot be imitated. Each of its expressions is a comprehensive one.” Goethe’s most famous works include West-Eastern Divan (inspired by the lyrics of Hafez), “Faust”, and “Iphigenie”. He passed away in 1832.
147 lunar years ago, on this day in 1292 AH, the first edition of the Persian language newspaper “Akhtar” was published in Istanbul, Turkey, by Aqa Mohammad Taher Tabrizi. It was the first Iranian paper published overseas in modern style. Many prominent figures published their articles in “Akhtar”, which gained fame in Iran, Caucasus, Ottoman Turkish Empire, India and Iraq. It played a crucial role in enlightening and informing the Iranian people, and also played a part in the victory of the Tobacco Movement against the British.
122 solar years ago, on this day in 1896 AD, renowned Urdu poet and critic Firaq Gorakhpuri was born in India in a Hindu family and named Raghupati Sahay. He finished his basic education and completed his Master's degree in Urdu, Persian and English literature. He was well-versed in all traditional metrical forms such as ghazal, ruba’i and qat'a. He wrote more than a dozen volumes of Urdu poetry, a half dozen of Urdu prose, some literary themes in Hindi, and four volumes of English prose on literary and cultural subjects. Among his famous works of Urdu poetry are Gol-e-Naghma, and Gol-e-Ra'na.
98 solar years ago, on this day in 1920 AD, the Islamic scholar and revolutionary, Ayatollah Mirza Mohammad Taqi Golshan Ha’eri Shirazi, passed away in Iraq at the age of 67 during the height of the struggle against British domination of the country, and is believed to have been martyred through poisoning by colonialist agents. Born in Shiraz, he migrated to Iraq with his father and after studies at the Najaf seminary reached the status of Ijtihad. He opposed the British meddling in the affairs of Iraq and mobilized the Iraqi people in the southern parts of the country to inflict defeat on the British occupation army. He authored several books.
26 solar years ago, on this day in 1992 AD, the revolutionary Iranian Islamic scholar, Ayatollah Seyyed Abdul-Majid Iravani, passed away at the age of 58. Born in the city of Tabriz, he was a product of the Qom Seminary, where his teachers included Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Hussain Boroujerdi and the Father of the Islamic Revolution, Imam Khomeini (RA). He actively participated in the Islamic movement and struggles against Shah’s despotic regime and was incarcerated by the security forces on several occasions. Following the victory of the Islamic Revolution, he lectured on Islamic sciences, while continuing his social and revolutionary activities.
6 solar years ago, on this day in 2012 AD, the Islamic Republic of Iran formally received from Egypt the rotating presidency of the 120-nation Non-Aligned Movement. The NAM summit in Tehran once again proved the world stature of the Islamic Republic and was a slap to the US and its few West European accomplices who think they can isolate the country through threats and illegal sanctions.
5 solar years ago, on this day in 2013 AD, in Iraq more than a dozen bombings by terrorist groups backed by the US and Saudi Arabia, ripped through Shi’a Muslim neighborhoods in and around the capital Baghdad, the bloodiest in a wave of attacks that left at least a hundred men, women, and children martyred across the country in addition to injury to hundreds of others.