This Day in History (08-06-1397)
Today is Thursday; 8th of the Iranian month of Shahrivar 1397 solar hijri; corresponding to 18th of the Islamic month of Zil-Hijjah 1439 lunar hijri; and August 30, 2018, of the Christian Gregorian Calendar.
The 18th of Zil-Hijjah is a Great Day in the History of Mankind. On this day great miracles occurred in history such as the turning into a garden of the huge fire the tyrant Nimrod had ignited and flung Prophet Abraham into it. On this day, Prophet Moses, on divine commandment, designated Prophet Joshua as his successor, and in the following centuries Prophet Solomon appointed Asef Ibn Barkhiya as his deputy, and Prophet Jesus (AS) named Simeon as his vicegerent.
1429 lunar years ago, on this day in 10 AH, on divine commandment, on revelation of ayah 67 of Surah al-Ma'edah, Prophet Mohammad (SAWA) proclaimed his cousin and son-in-law, Imam Ali (AS) as vicegerent at the pond or Ghadeer of Khom near Juhfa while returning to Medina from his farewell Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. After a memorable sermon to a gathering of 120,000-plus pilgrims, the Prophet raised the Imam’s hand, and expressed the immortal phrase, "Man kunto Mowlahu fa haza Aliyun Mowlahu" (For whomsoever I am Master, this Ali is his Master). God then revealed ayah 3 of Surah Ma'edah announcing the perfection of faith, completion of divine favours, and decreeing of Islam as the universal religion. For the next three days during the Prophet's stay at Ghadeer-Khom, every single person of this huge gathering personally pledged allegiance to Imam Ali (AS) as Amir al-Mominin (Commander of the Faithful) by clasping the palm of his right hand. For the convenience of the women attendees, the Prophet ordered the placing of water-filled basin in which Imam Ali (AS) dipped his hands and withdrew, while the ladies took turn to dip their own hands as proof of their allegiance to him. Hence, this day is a Grand Eid for Muslims and we congratulate our dear listeners on this auspicious event.
1404 lunar years ago, on this day in 35 AH, the Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali (AS), reluctantly assumed charge of the political leadership of the Islamic realm upon the insistence and begging of the Muslims to take up the reigns of the caliphate, of which he was deprived 25 years earlier on the passing away of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA), despite his proclamation as the righteous caliph at Ghadeer-Khom and the swearing of allegiance to him by 120,000 Muslims. This fresh pledge of allegiance to him happened three days after the killing of Othman ibn Affan, and thus started the only instance of the model administration of social justice in history.
767 lunar years ago, on this day in 672 AH, the famous Iranian Islamic religious scholar and scientist, Khwaja Mohammad Naseer od-Din Tusi, passed away at the age of 75 in Kazemain, Iraq, and was laid to rest in the mausoleum of Prophet Mohammad’s (SAWA) 7th Infallible Heir Imam Musa al-Kazem (AS). Born in Tus, Khorasan, he was a scientist, philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician, who made valuable contributions to world civilization. Even the Mongol invaders acknowledged his genius and Hulagu Khan, appointed him as his scientific advisor. Naseer od-Din Tusi built the famous observatory at Maragheh. It had various instruments such as a 4-meter wall quadrant made from copper and an azimuth quadrant which was his unique invention. Using accurately plotted planetary movements, he modified Ptolemy's model of the planetary system. The observatory and library became a centre for a wide range of work in science, mathematics and philosophy. He wrote some 80 books on various subjects including theology, ethics, science, philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, etc., in both Arabic and Persian.
655 solar years ago, on this day in 1363 AD, start of the Battle of Lake Poyang; the forces of two Chinese rebel leaders, Chen Youliang and Zhu Yuanzhang, were pitted against each other in what is one of the largest naval battles in history, during the last decade of the ailing, Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. Following this victory, Zhu emerged as the strongest of warlords fighting for supremacy in China, and in 1367 he defeated Zhang Shicheng's Kingdom of Dazhou, which granted him authority over the lands north and south of the Yangtze River. The other major warlords surrendered to him and on 20 January 1368, Zhu proclaimed himself the first Emperor of the Ming Dynasty in Nanjing and adopted the title "Hongwu". His dynasty's mission was to drive away the Mongols and restore Han Chinese rule in China. The Hongwu Emperor ruled for 30 years, and although born a Buddhist, he embraced the Confucian doctrine and showed inclination towards Islam. He ordered the construction of several mosques in Nanjing, Yunnan, Guangdong, Xijing and Fujian, and had inscriptions placed in them in praises of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA). He rebuilt the Jinjue Mosque in his capital Nanjing, and large numbers of the Muslim Hui people moved to the city during his rule. He had some ten Muslim generals in his military, including Chang Yuchun, Lan Yu, Ding Dexing, Mu Ying, Feng Sheng and Hu Dahai. He personally wrote the 100-word praise known as ‘baizizan’ on Islam, Allah and the Prophet Mohammad (SAWA).
499 lunar years ago, on this day in 940 AH, the great scholar, Shaikh Ali Ibn Abdul-Ma’ali al-Karki, passed away in Isfahan, the capital of the Safavid Empire of Iran. Born in Jabal Amel in what is now Lebanon, he was invited to Iran and appointed Shaikh ol-Islam by Shah Tahmasp I. Known as Muhaqqiq Thani (Second Researcher), he wrote several books, the most notable being “Jame’ al-Maqased”. Once, when a pseudo scholar, resentful of the formal establishment of the School of the Prophet’s Ahl al-Bayt as the official creed of Iran in 927 AH, claimed that according to “abjad” or numerical values of letters the year equals “Madhab-e Na-Haq” (or false creed), Muhaqqiq al-Karki immediately responded by saying why was he taking the Persian version of the alphabets, when the language of the Qur’an is Arabic, in which the letters for the year 927 combine to form “Madhabuna Haq” , which means “Ours is the Righteous Creed.
225 lunar years ago, on this day in 1214 AH, the famous Islamic scholar, Ayatollah Sheikh Morteza Ansari, was born in Dezful, southwestern Iran. Blessed with a sharp mind, he mastered the sciences of the day in holy Najaf in Iraq, and at the age of 35 attained the status of Ijtehad. He presented dynamic ideas in theology and jurisprudence. The main feature of his works is simplicity of language and rational approach to problems on the basis of the holy Qur'an and the Hadith. His books "ar-Rasael" and "al-Makaseb" are taught till this day at seminaries worldwide.
221 solar years ago, on this day in 1797 AD, Mary Wollstonecraft (Godwin) Shelley, the writer of "Frankenstein," or the Modern Prometheus, was born in London. She took the surname ‘Shelly’ after marrying her paramour, the poet Percy Shelly. In 1818, she anonymously published the novel as an attack on industrialization. This famous tale of a flawed artificial life experiment that produced a monster grew out of a visit at Lord Byron's villa with her husband. There, she shared in a discussion of galvanism, the possibility of reanimating dead matter, and even bringing life to a corpse. Byron suggested writing on the fantasy. Mary completed a full novel. Byron wrote briefly about the vampire legend he had learned about while in the Balkans, expanded by John Polidoni in “The Vampyre” (1819). Two classic horror subjects were thus born together.
205 solar years ago, on this day in 1813 AD, over 500 US troops lost their life in Fort Mims, north of Mobile in what is now Alabama State when Creek Amerindians had no other choice but to defend their land, properties and honour during one of those genocidal battles imposed on the natives by the White rulers.
111 solar years ago, on this day in 1907, following triumph of the constitutional movement in Iran, the country became target of a fresh colonial plot when Britain and Russia, without informing the weak Qajarid Dynasty, chalked up their spheres of influence, with the Russians taking control of the north and some western parts, and the British taking control of the south, while Tehran and the remaining parts were left under the rule of the central government. The Majlis strongly protested this move, but was helpless. The Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 made the Russians withdraw from Iran leaving the entire country to British influence.
96 solar years ago, on this day in 1922 AD, the final battle of the 4-year Greek War against Turkey was fought at Dumlupinar, resulting in a victory for the Turks and end of ambitions of British-backed Greece to occupy Asia Minor and seize Istanbul – on the flimsy claims of ancient Greek rule over the areas.
76 solar years ago, on this day in 1942 AD, the great gnostic scholar, Ayatollah Shaikh Hassan Ali Nokhoudaki Isfahani, passed away in holy Mashhad and was laid to rest in the mausoleum of Imam Reza (AS). A pious person since his youth, after completion of preliminary studies in Isfahan under such scholars as Mullah Mohammad Kashi and Jahangir Khan Qashqai, he left for Iraq for higher studies at the famous seminary in holy Najaf. Among his teachers were Seyyed Mohammad Fesharaki, Seyyed Morteza Kashmiri, and Mullah Ismail Qaradaghi. On return to Iran, he settled in Mashhad, where in addition to research and teaching, he was engaged in charitable activities for the poor. Ayatollah Nokhoudaki’s asceticism resulted in his acquiring of certain extraordinary spiritual powers which he used for the benefit of the downtrodden people, without letting anybody know it. These anecdotes have been mentioned in the book “Nishan az Binishanha” (Traces of the Untraceable).
37 solar years ago, on this day in 1981 AD, Iranian President Mohammad Ali Rajai, and Prime Minister Hojjat al-Islam Mohammad Javad Bahonar, were martyred in a bomb blast carried out by the MKO terrorist outfit at the premier’s office in Tehran. Rajai, a teacher by profession, was imprisoned and tortured on several occasions by the Shah’s regime for his Islamic political activities. Following the victory of the Islamic Revolution in 1979, he was elected to the parliament, was named minister of education, became prime minister, and finally chosen as president in the nationwide elections. He named courageous and committed religious scholar Dr. Mohammad Javad Bahonar, as the premier. In view of the impeccable credentials of these two faithful and modest persons, who were committed to the lofty ideals of the Islamic Revolution, the MKO terrorist outfit martyred them this day on the orders of Global Arrogance.
27 solar years ago, on this day in 1991 AD, the Republic of Azerbaijan declared its independence from the Soviet Union. This land has been integral part of Iran since pre-history, and was occupied by the Russians in the early 19th century. Following the Russian revolution, Azerbaijan became independent as a republic in 1918. But, this independence was short-lived and only lasted for two years. In late 1980s, on the verge of Soviet Union’s collapse, Azerbaijan Republic formally became independent.
19 solar years ago, on this day in 1999 AD, the people of East Timor, in Southeast Asia, in a referendum, voted for independence from Indonesia. The East Timor Island, in addition to other Indonesian Islands was occupied by Portugal, in 1511 AD. However, after the domination of Indonesia by Holland in mid-19th Century, only East Timor remained under the rule of Portugal. Indonesia gained its independence in the year 1945. But, Portugal continued to occupy East Timor till 1976. In this year, the Indonesian troops replaced Portuguese forces and East Timor came under the rule of Indonesia. Following the fall of General Suharto in the year 1998, and emergence of a political crisis in Indonesia, the independence-seeking movement in East Timor developed and this territory became independent with the support of the UN and Western governments.
4 solar years ago, on this day in 2014 AD, Iraqi security forces, along with the popular forces of Shi’a Muslims and Kurdish fighters, and with timely military help provided by the Islamic Republic of Iran, launched a major operation to break the more than two-month siege of Amerli, a Turkmen-majority town in northern Iraq, which was surrounded by the Godless Takfiri terrorists. The next day the siege was completely broken as Takfiri terrorists fled after suffering heavy losses. Thousands of men, women, and children trapped for more than two months with dwindling food and water supplies were liberated and offered prayers of gratitude to God Almighty.
8 Shahrivar of the Iranian Calendar: is commemorated every year as “Day of Campaign against Terrorism” in memory of the tragic martyrdom on July 30, 1981, of Iranian President Mohammad Ali Rajai and Prime Minister Hojjat al-Islam Mohammad Jawad Bahanor, and the support of western regimes for the MKO terrorists who carried out this dastardly bomb blast and then shamelessly claimed responsibility for it.