Changes in culture and arts in 1st two decades of 21st Century (2)
In the previous episode, we spoke of the grand revolution which Internet and social networks sparked in our everyday lives. Now, let's pay a glance at the current status of publication industry and its developments, in addition to current status of press.
Following the invention of print machine by Gutenberg; emergence of e-books is named as the most important progress and development in the field of publication industry. Despite of the prediction of experts on the imminent end of the era of traditional books, this speculation did not come true. Nonetheless, the exponential growth of information technology in the waning years of 20th Century and the first two decades of 21st Century, enabled e-books to stay course as the earnest rivals of traditional books.
The tools for study of e-books first emerged in the year 1991. This digital means for presentation of e-books is a tool, which renders raw information in the form of texts to users.
Currently, e-books can be studied with the usage of different types of computers and some types of smartphones. Meanwhile, not many people are prepared to allocate a separate budget for purchase of e-books.
Internet has been the main contributor to promotion of e-books, to an extent that currently countless e-books are on display online.
E-books maintain significant advantages in comparison to traditional books, including their capacity to store a large amount of information in a compact form; the ability of e-books to store and take note of the sections needed for future study and access; the possibility of usage of other mediums such as voice, image, coupled with texts, and the ability of changing the form and shape of texts, in addition to portable nature of e-books.
The inappropriate resolution of the e-books, and eye fatigue, ensuing the prolonged study of computer monitors, are some of the major drawbacks of e-books. Naturally, for e-books to reach their true status, such e-book shortcomings should be dispelled. Hence, a significant number of Internet users still prefer traditional books. E-books provide a modern, efficient, and flexible method for the study of users; and is a means at the hands of publishers for presentation of creative and innovative styles.
Online education and far-distance education are important topics in education; to an extent that in the recent century; online education has replaced traditional education in many parts of the world. Based on current educational theories, the best learning style is interactive learning; which in turn necessitates the usage of multimedia tools and all-encompassing participation in the learning process. The difference between study or ordinary books and e-books is that learning e-books is interactive in style; and this in turn is one of the highly valuable features of usage of this technology.
Promotion and development of e-books is a time-consuming process, while experts are making utmost efforts for invention of a new generation of electronic tools. Motivation of users for purchase and usage of e-books necessities a rise in the resolution of e-books in a significant manner.
A feature that can contribute to further usage of e-books is enabling users to listen to e-books. Relative accomplishments have been made to this end.
Meanwhile, since 2012, production of e-books has outnumbered that of traditional books. In accordance with the announcement of accredited global institutions, the financial turnover of the e-book industry will soon reach billions of dollar per year.
Now, let's briefly study the current status of press worldwide and the changes that press have experienced in the past two decades.
Based on figures released by UN and Reporters without Borders, global freedom of press has declined in the past twenty years. According to Reporters without Borders, in average 80 reporters have been killed per annum worldwide in the past two decades. Meanwhile, Turkey has been named as the biggest global prison for media activists.
Global press has also faced a shortage of financial sources and closure of print houses. Currently, the closure of printed press has surged, while in the past two decades the publication of many well-known global newspapers has come to a grind.
Up to now, well-known US-based publications such as Chicago Tribune, Boston Globe, Los Angeles Times, and Time magazine have halted their printed copies and have focused on online publication.
Based on unofficial figures, currently 1.7 billion people across the world study printed press, while 2.5 billion others read online media.